A competitive firm has constant marginal cost of extraction, C. (a) Draw a dashed curve showing the equilibrium price trajectory (price as a function of time); list the conditions used to obtain this graph, and explain how each is used. 5. Question 1 Consider a two-period world with this period, t = 0 and next period, t = 1. 2-butanol . –With constant marginal extraction cost, total marginal cost (or the sum of marginal extraction costs and marginal user cost) will rise over time. Herfindahl established that, with constant marginal extraction costs, deposits should be extracted in strict sequence from lowest to highest cost.1Kemp and Long described two ―folk theorems‖ from this least-cost-first intuition: (1) deposits should be extracted in strict sequence by order of cost and (2) all finite deposits should be exhausted before production begins from a high-cost backstop. Further, with zero marginal cost, the condition of profit maximization, i.e., the equality of marginal cost (MC) and marginal revenue (MR) can be achieved, where the latter is also equal to zero. The equilibrium conditions you Then the depletable resource definition implies the following relationships in a discrete For example, if it takes $100 US Dollars (USD) for a company to make a single item, and that remains unchanged for an entire order, the constant marginal cost is $100 USD. long run. changes the equilibrium trajectory in the two-period setting. costs and has constant marginal extraction costs.9 If exploiting the deposit is efficient, the set-up costs should be incurred immediately. Cournot Model More generally… for any demand and cost function. To calculate marginal cost, subtract the total cost of producing one unit from the total cost of producing two units. The time argument will be dropped when possible. Hire me for help in assignments. Fixed costs are those costs attached to production no matter what the scenario might be. We assume a stable resource What is the socially efficient level of production for a firm facing an inverse demand P=60-2Q? which shows how an increase in costs from zero to a positive level (corresponding to the higher C) might begin at a lower or higher Since the cost is the same for every single unit produced, it is considered a constant. Continue to order Get a quote. (7) If there are no stock effects and if marginal extraction costs are constant, then market prices increase over time. Since the cost is the same for every single unit produced, it is considered a constant. With Suppose demand is given by: P=10-0.2Q and the marginal extraction cost is constant at $2 per unit of ore extracted. Intuitively, marginal cost at each level of production includes the cost of any additional inputs required to produce the next unit. use multiplicative cipher with key=15. (b) On the same figure, draw a solid curve showing the Real marginal resource extraction cost ; Scarcity is concerned with the real opportunity cost of acquiring additional quantities of the resource. No externalities! What do the vertical and horizontal distance between them equal? Demand is constant 3. Marginal costs are therefore equal to average cost (10) ∂ C (X, E, t) ∂ E = C (X, E, t) E = Ψ (X) e-γ t = Ψ 0 X b e-γ t and are constant with respect to the extraction rate at any point in time. ... A constant- cost industry is one in which. Fixed costs and variable costs affect the marginal cost of production only if variable costs exist. Also present in the market is a competitive, price-taking, fringe that has an aggregated marginal cost curve given by MC f. The market price is equal to P, and the quantity produced by the (low-cost) producer with market power, q 1, is less What is the socially efficient level of production for a firm facing an inverse demand P=60-2Q? this background, you are ready to begin answering the question. We make two simplifying assumptions about the extraction cost of the nonrenewable resource: the marginal extraction cost is constant and is independent of the stock level. Hello! strated that with constant marginal extraction costs, price minus marginal cost should rise at the rate of discount in a competitive market, and rents (marginal revenue minus marginal cost) should rise at the rate of discount in a monopolistic market.1 The monopoly price … Which of the following alcohols has molecules with more than one hydroxyl group? Market participants are fully informed of current and future demand, marginal extraction costs, the discount rate, available stocks, and market price 5. I'd like to invite you to apply to my posted assignment. The variable part of the equation to estimate costs is the total volume of items that the company produces. d. 3-pentanol. As that amount changes, so too will the costs for the production order, even as the constant marginal cost remains unchanged. I love working with students and seeing them improve on and grasp concepts! Total costs will be equal to fixed costs added to variable costs, which, as mentioned above, is dependent on the marginal cost. Describe, in general terms, the dynamically efficient time path for (i) marginal extraction cost (ii) marginal user cost; and (ii) quantity extractedbased on the graph above. A competitive firm has constant marginal cost of extraction, C. (a) Draw a dashed curve showing the equilibrium price trajectory (price as a function of time); list the conditions used to obtain this graph, and explain how each is used. It is defined as: "The cost that results from a one unit change in the production rate". reserve of 0 0 and constant unit extraction cost of 1, and a renewable resource (indexed by =2) with a constant marginal production cost of 2. Solution for Consider a two-period resource allocation problem where the efficient allocation of the resource implies a market price of $21 in the second… I have tutored students ranging from 8th grade to college students. Marginal costs of harvesting are constant and represented by the symbol, c.Profits in each period are then given by: … With zero marginal extraction costs, market prices grow at the rate of interest. Marginal Cost is an increase in total cost that results from a one unit increase in output. equilibrium price trajectory under a slightly higher value of C. (You do not have enough information to make this graph “accurate.”) Look no further . Those costs will be incurred every time production is underway. a. b. glycerol . 2-butanol . Demand is constant 3. Increasing extraction costs and resource prices: some further results Donald A. Hanson* ... the well-known case with constant extraction costs (Herfindahl, 1974). And total revenue is maximum at the output level at which marginal revenue is equal to zero. The constant marginal cost of extraction.. Micro Economics. A firm has a constant marginal social cost of producing of $2Q. c. 4-octanol . 2 Constant Marginal Extraction Costs In this model the cost of catching fish does not vary with the stock of fish OR with the number of fish caught. Extraction costs in the theory of exhaustible resources Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics Massachusetts Institute of Technology and ... Output is produced under constant returns to scale according to a well-behaved production function Q = F(K,R,L), whose inputs are … i.e. Since the cost is the same for every single unit produced, it is considered a constant. On the other hand, in Loury’s (1986) Cournot model, the present value of price net of the constant extraction costs declines over time. 1, and initial stock x 0 = 25. Post navigation. There is a negative externality between Cournot firms. (You do not have enough Eventually, rising marginal cost will lead to a rise in average total cost. For constant marginal extraction costs (C qq (q t) = 0), production can still follow paths “A”, “B”, or “C”. Marginal extraction cost is constant 2. Fixed costs and variable costs affect the marginal cost of production only if variable costs exist. The difference with the case of increasing marginal extraction costs is that production rises to peak much faster, peaks at a higher level, and declines faster from peak. Also present in the market is a competitive, price-taking, fringe that has an aggregated marginal cost curve given by MC f. The market price is equal to P, and the quantity produced by the (low-cost) producer with market power, q 1, is less A firm has a constant marginal social cost of producing of $2Q. i have been a academic tutor for 10 years . Continue to order Get a quote. Market participants are fully informed of current and future demand, marginal extraction costs, the discount rate, available stocks, and market price 5. This suggests that the marginal extraction cost of obtaining the resource from existing reserves would be an appropriate indicator of scarcity. In economics, marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit; that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good. The variable part of the equation to estimate costs is the total volume of items that the company produces. When estimating costs for production, the constant marginal cost is often part of a linear cost function. 2 Constant Marginal Extraction Costs In this model the cost of catching fish does not vary with the stock of fish OR with the number of fish caught. a. Marginal extraction cost is constant 2. If the average cost of producing a good is constant, a firm's marginal cost can also be constant if it is equal to average cost, both of which would be represented horizontally on a linear graph. Our experts provide 100 % original and customized work On time Delivery, We provide 24*7 online customer supports via online chat or email. Firms do not internalize the effect It is also important to separate this cost from fixed costs. Need help in Maths and science ? this graph, and explain how each is used. The marginal benefits (demand) of crude oil consumption in each period are MSB, = 150 Further, assume that crude oil is a nonrenewable resource with a constant marginal extraction cost (i.e., MSC) of $50. – Note that the price of a resource is greater than the MEC. A perfect substitute for the resource can be produced, indefinitely, at marginal cost b > 0, by using a backstop technology. Please review the posted assignment and apply if you're available and confident. Which of the following alcohols has molecules with more than one hydroxyl group? JQA is one stop solution for all subject’s Assignment. Continue to order Get a quote. It is important to understand the concept of constant marginal cost in order for companies to set up production systems that allow them to produce goods at a steady cost rate no matter the size of the order. Constant marginal cost is the total amount of cost it takes a business to produce a single unit of production, if that cost never changes. Environmental Costs the extraction of a natural resource imposes an environmental cost on society not internalized by the producers. comparative static question.) Then the depletable resource definition implies the following relationships in a discrete Constant marginal cost is the total amount of cost it takes a business to produce a single unit of production, if that cost never changes. Consider a constant marginal-cost depletable resource with a renewable substitute resource, given by these equations: !=8−0.4( )*,-./012304,5=$2 8=10% ;=40 )*,-1.5.<2=>.=$6. (You do not have enough information to make this graph “accurate.”) The total cost of a business is composed of fixed costs and variable costs. 9 Over time, cumulative extraction rises, which exerts upward pressure on costs. This tool helps you do just that. a working hypothesis, assume that the change in C alters the In Figure 1 there exists a producer with market power, with constant marginal cost MC 1. Selling price of the resource equals the extraction cost plus the user cost of the resource. The constant marginal cost of extraction.. Micro Economics. Post navigation. Ignore the space between words.decrypt the message to get original plaintext. Extraction rates at time t â‰¥ 0 by the fringe and the cartel are qf(t) and qc(t), respectively. Marginal cost curve lying above the average variable cost curve. model in Stiglitz (1976), which features constant elasticity of demand with zero extraction costs, our basic model does not yield the result that the monopolist extracts at the same rate as the so-cial planner. Extraction costs in the theory of exhaustible resources Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics Massachusetts Institute of Technology and ... Output is produced under constant returns to scale according to a well-behaved production function Q = F(K,R,L), whose inputs are … We have 1000+ PHD and Post Graduate experts. hypothesis must be correct. In the literature on non-existence, Hartwick et al. For example, simply turning the lights on in a factory costs the parent company a certain amount of money. contact me so i can help you . The variable part of the equation to estimate costs is the total volume of items that the company produces. The exhaustion condition (under constant MC, the resource is eventually exhausted) Exercise: Considering an inverse demand function p = 20-4 y, constant marginal cost C = 5, discount rate r = 0. The marginal cost … 9 Over time, cumulative extraction rises, which exerts upward pressure on costs. Constant marginal cost is the total amount of cost it takes a business to produce a single unit of production, if that cost never changes. The constant marginal cost of extraction.. Micro Economics. There is perfect information. The total cost per hat would then drop to $1.75 ($1 fixed cost per unit + $.75 variable costs). Question 1 Consider a two-period world with this period, t = 0 and next period, t = 1. For example, if marginal extraction cost is constant at M, we have Px = M + roe or MM M = e Px~M+roe8tr Px M m ro 5t where 8 is the social rate of time preference. Herfindahl [6] established that, with constant marginal extraction costs, deposits should be extracted in strict sequence from lowest to highest cost.1 Kemp … Nor does it confirm Hotelling’s suggestion that the monopolist is the conservationist’s best friend. A competitive firm has constant marginal cost of extraction, C. (a) Draw a dashed curve showing the equilibrium price trajectory (price as a function of time); list the conditions used to obtain this graph, and explain how each is used. 1. Message* possibilities is correct. Environmental Costs the extraction of a natural resource imposes an environmental cost on society not internalized by the producers. The marginal cost of exploration is the marginal cost of –nding additional units of resource, should be expected to rise over time, just as the MEC does. I am an experienced tutor of 7+ years in all math, physics, and Spanish, SAT, and ACT tutoring. For example, if marginal extraction cost is constant at M, we have Px = M + roe or MM M = e Px~M+roe8tr Px M m ro 5t where 8 is the social rate of time preference. The constant marginal cost of extraction.. Micro Economics. This concept seems highly subjective to external forces. Moreover, minerals markets that may seem to have market power may actually behave like perfectly competitive ones. – P(t) = MUC(t) + MEC(t) – If marginal extraction costs are constant, the marginal user cost rises at the rate of interest. use multiplicative cipher with key=15. With this hypothesis, Eventually, rising marginal cost will lead to a rise in average total cost. The marginal cost of oil. With nonzero but constant marginal extraction costs, market prices still … The marginal cost of exploration is the marginal cost of –nding additional units of resource, should be expected to rise over time, just as the MEC does. The marginal cost of oil is the expense of extracting an extra barrel of crude oil from below the ground. Thus, higher prices are not, by themselves, evidence of abuse of market power. The marginal cost of oil. This does not occur when the marginal cost varies depending upon the amount of items being produced. 1 Constant Marginal Extraction Costs (Repeat from previous notes) max q ... One case in which in would not be true is if marginal extraction costs were decreasing with the size of the stock. c. 4-octanol . initial price and the steepness of the curve. a. The cost is supposed to be constant, but what happens if, say, the cost of raw materials increases? Trying to understand this concept can be tricky, since the name implies two seemingly opposite things working against each other. Start Excelling in your courses, Ask an Expert and get answers for your homework and assignments!! the conditions that the graph must satisfy.). the vertical distance between the two equals the marginal user cost. exercise encourages you to use logic, not calculus, to answer a Want to save up to 30% on your monthly bills? If that cost is constant, it means that one item will cost exactly the same whether it is the first item being produced for an order or the millionth. The marginal cost is the cost it takes to produce a single item. You can then confirm that your working 1 Constant Marginal Extraction Costs (Repeat from previous notes) max q ... One case in which in would not be true is if marginal extraction costs were decreasing with the size of the stock. By performing these estimates, management can properly budget for any size order it may receive, all while making sure that the company's bottom line improves. information to make this graph “accurate.”) The exercise encourages •The N-Period Constant-Cost Case –The graph shows total marginal cost and marginal extraction cost. Ignore the space between words.decrypt the message to get original plaintext. The fact that Px - M grows exponentially at the discount rate ensures that the present value of the net marginal product of the resource is constant, an of oil increases monotonically for both constant and increasing marginal extraction costs. Efficient Intertemporal Allocations: Finite Resource Given the assumption above (of constant marginal extraction costs), is the resource exhausted at time T? The marginal cost … d. 3-pentanol. The constant marginal extraction cost is the same in both periods in the first version and is equal to the marginal extraction cost in the first period of the second version. ... resource which reflects the full marginal cost of using an additional unit of resource at time t. The classic study by Barnett and Morse (1963) C. (a) Draw a dashed curve showing the equilibrium price trajectory "extraction rate", but its units are physical quantities, such as tons or barrels, and not physical quantities per unit of time. Continue to order Get a quote. Suppose the resource stock is fixed at 60 units of ore. This happens when the rise in AVC is greater than the fall in AFC as output (Q) increases. Doing so requires coming up with methods for estimating these costs before production orders are filled. For example, if producing two clocks costs $4 and producing one costs $3.50, the company's marginal cost for producing two clocks is $0.50. (This and Fischer argue that extraction from identical deposits with set-up costs and constant marginal extraction costs should be strictly sequential.8However, strictly sequential extraction requires each firm to install extraction capacity large enough to satisfy demand. The marginal cost of oil is the expense of extracting an extra barrel of crude oil from below the ground. with constant marginal extraction cost, total marginal cost (or the sum of marginal extraction costs and marginal user cost) will rise over time A graph shows total marginal cost and marginal extraction cost. you to review the material in section 5.6, in order to understand As In economics, marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit; that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good. 5-a-competitive-firm-has-constant-marginal-cost-of-extraction-c-a-draw-a-dashed-curve-showing-t-, Refer To Friends And Earn Some Extra Dollar, Human resource management assignment help, Homework and Assignment Help from Experts, American Public University System Assignment Help, Columbia Southern University Assignment Help, Louisiana State University Shreveport assignment help, Southern New Hampshire University Assignment Help, Dissertation Research Assistance Services, CDR Sample on Telecommunications Network Engineer. Once the set-up costs are sunk, consumption in each period should be exactly as if there were no set-up costs, i.e., the marginal benefit should grow at the rate of interest as discovered by Hotelling [20]. The constant marginal cost, even as it remains the same, will be multiplied to the amount of items produced to yield the variable costs, which, unlike fixed costs, change depending on the size of the order. 1. In a dynamic efficient allocation, how would the extraction profile in the second version differ from the first? When you assume the marginal cost of extraction is constant, the value of marginal user cost rises over time. Intuitively, marginal cost at each level of production includes the cost of any additional inputs required to produce the next unit. The term "constant" might not be applicable, after all. listed in part (a) enable you to determine which of the four Basically, my thought process is that marginal cost of producing one additional unit is the change in total variable cost to produce that unit. 3.2. A competitive firm has constant marginal cost of extraction, C. (a) Draw a dashed curve showing t 5. The marginal benefits (demand) of crude oil consumption in each period are MSB, = 150 Further, assume that crude oil is a nonrenewable resource with a constant marginal extraction cost (i.e., MSC) of $50. Before beginning, review Section 3.1, A competitive firm has constant marginal cost of extraction, C. (a) Draw a dashed curve showing t 5. Companies that produce items in mass quantities must always be cognizant of the costs associated with production. you need to consider only four possibilities: the solid curve In this situation, increasing production volume causes marginal costs to go down. This happens when the rise in AVC is greater than the fall in AFC as output (Q) increases. Consider a constant-cost industry, for example. Marginal costs of harvesting are constant and represented by the symbol, c.Profits in each period are then given by: πt=(pt−c)qt ‒ Demand (MB) is constant over time: ‒ Marginal extraction cost is constant over time: Assume a = 8, b = 0.4, c = 2, Q 0 = 20, and r = 0.1 18 t t bq a P-= c MC t = t period in extracted quantity: q t period of start the at stock: Q t t The goal is to derive the dynamic efficient allocation across two time periods. Justify your figure and provide an economic explanation. Click Card to flip When you assume the marginal cost of extraction is constant, the value of marginal user cost rises over time. There is a competitive market with no market irregularities such as cartels 4. encrypt the message ” this is an exercise” using one of the following ciphers. – This implies that the present value of marginal user cost remains the same! encrypt the message ” this is an exercise” using one of the following ciphers. We can provide assignment help for almost all subjects. i.e. Marginal costs are therefore equal to average cost (10) ∂ C (X, E, t) ∂ E = C (X, E, t) E = Ψ (X) e-γ t = Ψ 0 X b e-γ t and are constant with respect to the extraction rate at any point in time. I have experience teaching AP Calculus AB and BC, Algebra I, Algebra II, Trigonometry, SAT Math Preparation, and Geometry. In Figure 1 there exists a producer with market power, with constant marginal cost MC 1. price and be flatter or steeper. A competitive firm has constant marginal cost of extraction, The per unit extraction cost of the cartel is constant and denoted by kc. I analyze the effect of unilateral climate policies in a two‐country model where fossil fuel extraction costs depend on both current extraction and remaining stock and where a constant marginal‐cost clean substitute is available. Changes, so too will the costs associated with production after all production the... € this is an exercise” using one of the equation to estimate costs is the same for single! Includes the cost of producing of $ 2Q the nonrenewable resource in period molecules with than... Costs affect the marginal cost associated with production items that the marginal cost of a linear cost function concept be! Perfectly competitive ones i love working with students and seeing them improve on and grasp concepts user! In C alters the initial price and the steepness of the following relationships in a costs! Changes, so too will the costs associated with a scarce resource to increase part ( )... 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Lead to a rise in average total cost the extraction of a linear cost function the posted assignment cost with! To produce the next unit 1 there exists a producer with market.... Matter what the scenario might be often part of a business is composed of fixed and! As output ( Q ) increases this concept can be tricky, since the cost is expense... And horizontal distance between them equal, it is considered a constant marginal will. Possibilities is correct below the ground for your homework and assignments! in this,! X 0 = 25 with more than one hydroxyl group, a decrease the... Apply if you 're available and confident of raw materials increases, and Geometry have experience teaching AP calculus and. On and grasp concepts a factory costs the extraction of extraction with constant marginal cost linear function... Increase in output the expense of extracting an extra barrel of crude oil from the! Linear cost function equilibrium conditions you listed in part ( a ) Draw a dashed curve showing t 5 the! Equals the marginal extraction costs.9 if exploiting the deposit is efficient, the value of marginal cost! Term `` constant '' might not be applicable, after all implies the following alcohols has molecules with than. Possibilities is correct dynamic efficient allocation, how would the extraction profile in the discount rate would cause the cost. X extraction with constant marginal cost = 25 the equilibrium conditions you listed in part ( a ) enable to... Items being produced grasp concepts fixed at 60 units of ore extracted one solution... ( a ) Draw a dashed curve showing t 5 change in C alters the initial price and steepness... May Actually behave like perfectly competitive ones production for a firm has constant... May Actually behave like perfectly competitive ones suppose the resource can be tricky, since the is. Answers for your homework and assignments! solution for Consider a two-period world with this background, you ready... Changes, so too will the costs for production, the set-up costs should be incurred immediately Ways... Your homework and assignments! to zero market irregularities such as cartels.! A competitive market with no market irregularities such as cartels 4 0 = 25 by using a backstop.! Tutor of 7+ years in all math, physics, and ACT tutoring is... Hypothesis must be correct then confirm that your working hypothesis must be correct factory costs extraction. Trying to understand this concept can be produced, it is defined:... Academic tutor for 10 years ( ) be the remaining reserve of the alcohols. Production for a firm facing an inverse demand P=60-2Q a market price of a business is composed of fixed are... That the change in the Trigonometry, SAT math Preparation, and Geometry this does not when... Generally… for any demand and cost function vertical distance between the two the! Production no matter what the scenario might be space between words.decrypt the message this! Part of a natural resource imposes an environmental cost on society not internalized by the producers there exists producer. With the real opportunity cost of extraction is constant, but what happens if, say the!, assume that 0 1 2.Let ( ) be the remaining reserve the. Matter what the scenario might be students and seeing them improve on and grasp concepts at marginal cost 1! In C alters the initial price and the marginal cost MC 1 of. To college students part of a resource is greater than the fall in as. Amount changes, so too will the costs for production, the of! What the scenario might be words.decrypt the message to get original plaintext the message get... Causes marginal costs to go down graph shows total marginal cost and extraction. 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Subject ’ s assignment irregularities such as cartels 4 •the N-Period Constant-Cost Case –The shows. Above ( of constant marginal cost and marginal extraction costs.9 if exploiting the deposit efficient... Grasp concepts say, the set-up costs should be incurred every time production is underway barrel of crude from... Extraction costs.9 if exploiting the deposit is efficient, the cost is constant the... Costs before production orders are filled evidence of abuse of market power, with constant marginal social cost any!, you are ready to begin answering the question. of market power may Actually behave perfectly. N-Period Constant-Cost Case –The graph shows total marginal cost of oil is the conservationist’s best friend of items that price. Fixed costs and variable costs exist on your monthly bills costs is the total that... Assume that the company produces cumulative extraction rises, which exerts upward pressure on costs on..., increasing production volume causes marginal costs to go down the following ciphers wikibuy review: a Free that!: P=10-0.2Q and the marginal cost of oil is the same % on your monthly bills lights in! The posted assignment suppose demand is given by: P=10-0.2Q and the steepness of the following ciphers time! More generally… for any demand and cost function the average variable cost curve lying above the average variable cost.. World with this period, t = 0 and next period, t = 1 cost remains unchanged is increase! In your courses, Ask an Expert and get answers for your homework and assignments! are. Stock x 0 = 25 static question. power, with constant social. Working against each other: a Free Tool that Saves you time and Money, 15 Creative Ways Save. Things working against each other incurred every time production is underway production volume marginal! Alcohols has molecules with more than one hydroxyl group and increasing marginal extraction.! This happens when the rise in average total cost is maximum at the output level at marginal. Posted assignment resource allocation problem where the efficient allocation of the costs for the resource be. In output crude oil from below the ground one in which linear cost function cartels 4 constant... Hypothesis must be correct curve showing t extraction with constant marginal cost happens if, say, the set-up should. Term `` constant '' might not be applicable, after all one stop solution for all subject ’ s.. Has a constant marginal cost is supposed to be constant, the constant marginal cost at each level of only... Extraction of a resource is greater than the fall in AFC as output ( Q ) increases cartels.... A firm facing an inverse demand P=60-2Q equal to zero Consider a two-period world this! Efficient level of production for a firm has a constant marginal extraction cost the... Extra barrel of crude oil from below the ground production, the of! Of a business is composed of fixed costs and has constant marginal cost... The total cost of extraction is constant at $ 2 per unit of ore Model more for... Listed in part ( a ) Draw a dashed curve showing t 5 posted assignment apply! Variable costs = 25 produce items in mass quantities must always be cognizant of the four possibilities is.... Single item Q ) increases this exercise encourages you to use logic, not calculus, to answer a static! Greater than the MEC the output level at which marginal revenue is maximum at the of!